Before people started using this great invention, they used a variety of substitutes. For example the ancient Romans used sponges on the ends of sticks, kept in jugs filled with salty water. In the late 14th century, Chinese emperors ordered the production of the first "official" toilet paper- it was made in 2x3 feet (60x90 cm) sheets. The first packaged toilet paper was produced in the United States in 1857 by Joseph C. Gayetty. It basically consisted of pre-moistened flat sheets medicated with aloe. But these early examples of toilet paper were far from perfect, as they often had splinters in them. "Splinter-free" toilet paper was advertised by Northern Tissue in 1935. Later, many other improvements were made to the invention (such as making it two-ply) and in 1999 The Virtual Toilet Paper Museum was opened.