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Biological Anthropology

written by: mattbeckwith
 
Learn about our hominid ancestors, and other interesting discoveries of this fascinating sub-field of anthropology.

Question 1:

View the provided image.
Discovered in modern-day Ethiopia, Australopithecus afarensis is believed to be a distant ancestor of human beings, who lived 2.9 to 3.9 million years ago. The first member of this species discovered was female. What was she named?
Gertrude
Lucy
Eve
Mary


View Image

Question 2:

View the provided image.
Which of the following is the correct chronological order of species leading from the past up until modern humans?
Australopithecus afarensis, Homo neanderthalensis, Homo habilis, Homo sapiens.
Australopithecus afarensis, Homo habilis, Homo erectus, Homo sapiens.
Australopithecus afarensis, Homo erectus, Homo habilis, Homo sapiens.
Australopithecus afarensis, Homo habilis, Homo erectus, Homo neanderthalensis, Homo sapiens.


View Image

Question 3:


If the optimal body habitus for hot climates is tall and slender, what is one possible condition explaining pygmies?
Rain
Humidity
Low atmospheric preasure
Ice ages

Question 4:

View the provided image.
Humans evolved from chimpanzees.
False
True


View Image

Question 5:


Which of the following is correct?
Primates include Apes and Pro-Simians. Pro-Simians include Humans. Apes include Gorillas, Orangutans and Monkeys.
Primates include Monkeys, Pro-Simians, and Apes. Apes include Orangutans, Gorillas, Chimpanzees and Humans.
Primates include Humans, Pro-Simians and Apes. Apes include Orangutans, Gorillas, and Monkeys.
Primates include Gorillas, Monkeys and Humans. Monkeys include Pro-Simians and Chimpanzees.

Question 6:


Which of the following modern diseases evolved as a protection against malaria?
Asthma
Tay Sachs
Sickle Cell Anemia
Lactose Intolerance

Question 7:


Which of the following primates is the closest related to humans? (That is, this primate has more DNA in common with humans than any other living creature does.)
Lemur
Gorilla
Chimpanzee
Orangutan

Question 8:


African Americans are more likely to suffer from hypertension (high blood pressure) than European Americans. Why?
African Americans eat more salty food than European Americans do.
In tropical climates, one sweats a lot. This results in water loss, which lowers blood pressure. Africans therefore conserve salt more efficiently than Europeans. In the United States, however, where it is cooler, this characteristic leads to high bloo
Enslaved individuals were transported from Africa in the holds of ships, and given very little water. Those whose bodies conserved salt were more likely to survive the journey. Salt exacerbates high blood pressure.
Rap music raises blood pressure.

Question 9:


Dark skin contains melanin, which is a dark pigment in the skin. The purpose for melanin is to protect the skin from harmful effects of ultraviolet sunlight, which include skin cancer. What evolutionary advantage does light skin have?
Light skin is more attractive, which makes the person better able to attract a mate.
Light skin lets in more sunlight. Sunlight catalyzes the formation of Vitamin D.
Light skin tans more easily. This makes the person more attractive and therefore facilitates mating.
Light skin lets in more sunlight, which allows a person in colder climates to get warm more easily.

Question 10:


Mitochondrial DNA has been analyzed to estimate the ancestral lineage of various species around the world, including primates. Which of the following statements about mitochondria is true?
Mitochondria are descended from once-separate, single-celled organisms which invaded a cell, stuck around, then lost their ability to live independently.
Mitochondria function in the cell to break down waste products.
Mitochondrial DNA does not mutate.
Mitochondrial DNA is only inherited by males.

 


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